Development scenario of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
The state has a population of 60.3 million which is largely rural (73.5%). There are 20.3% Scheduled Tribes and 15.2% Scheduled Caste in the state. As per census 2001, urban population is 16 million. The gender ratio in the state is 919 compared to the national average of 933.
With about 38 percent of people living below the official poverty line during 2004- 05, the state of Madhya Pradesh accounted for nearly 11 per cent of the total poor population in the country. As per BPL Survey, updated till Oct’2010, 47.49 percent of total household surveyed are found to be below poverty line. Total BPL Household/Family comprises of 23.17 % of SC, 33.4 % of ST and 34.49 % of OBC. The per capita income in the state is Rs 14918 (2008-09), which is below the national average. However, 6.99% growth was reported as compare to 1999-00. The organized industry employs 6 % of the total workforce. Agriculture employs nearly 72% of its workers, although it contributes just 33 % of the state GDP. Average size of the land holding in the state is 2.22 ha as compare to all-India average of 1.57 ha. Small/Marginal farmers hold 65% (all India 75%) of total land holdings but operate only 26% of area, whereas medium and large farmers own 35% of holdings and operate 74% of area.
The NSS data revealed a rise in 37% for male and 44% for female casual workers in 1999/2000. NSS estimates indicate that an approximate 17% of rural children in the state, the fifth-highest in India, in the age-group 10-14 years, are working. Under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS), only 41% (47 lakh) Job card holders demanded for work during 2009-10, while only 6.7 lakh households received 100 days of employment.
The increase in literacy between 1991 and 2001 has been much faster than the previous decades. From 1991 to 2001, the crude literacy rate in MP increased from 45 % to 64 %, while female literacy increased from 29 per cent to 50 per cent. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) at elementary level has increased from 84% to 99.4% for SC children & from 80.7% to 96.3% for ST children; 165.64 children are enrolled in school till 2008-09. Free books are given to almost 12 Crore children, out of which 5.4 crore are girls. The number of children not attending school has decreased from 13.28 lakh in 2001 to 2.96 lakh in 2006-07
State has worst condition on various health indicators. It has highest IMR in the country; 70 per 1000 live births against national average of 53 in 2008. Mostly deaths were reported within 48 hours of delivery of child, due to lack of access to better health facilities in rural area. Similarly, birth and death rate is also high during 2008 as compare to national average; birth rate 28 per 1000 and death rate 8.6 per 1000, while national average is 22.8 per 1000 and 7.4 per 1000, respectively.
The JSY has drastically improved the institutional delivery in the state, which was 27% in 2005-06 and 65% in 2009 through benefiting 27 lakh mothers. Under the NRHM, significant amount Rs.344.87 crores, i.e. 110% against the PIP approval of 313.74 crores has been utilized in RCH-II component as compared to national level expenditure of 71% in 2008-09. Nevertheless, the Maternal Mortality Rate reported at 335, above the national average of 254. Utilization on Training component is less than 10%; the target of selecting 62 thousand ASHA workers is not complete, which is reported 43 thousand in 2009. Only 2145 ANMs and other Para -health workers have been trained as skilled birth attendants, against a target of 7619.
State has operational 226 PHCs as 24×7 2008-09 against the target of 596 PHCs by 2010. At the same time, as per DLHS-3 only 32.3% of 24×7 PHCs have newborn care services.
The safe drinking water is also issue of concern in the state. Out of total 126172 hamlets 78% are fully covered, 15% are partially covered and rest do not have any safe source of drinking water facilities (2008-09).
Madhya Pradesh is one of the states where starvation and malnutrition deaths have been reported since year 2000 but still the state gets only 41 percent of food grains of its total requirement for distribution under various welfare schemes. The extreme status of malnutrition in the state (60.3% children under 3 years are under-weight in NFHS 3 as compared to 53.5 % in NFHS 2) and 52.8% of children in urban areas are under-weight.
The state has a population of 2.1 crore which is largely rural (79%). Population consist of 33% Scheduled Tribes and 12% Scheduled Caste. There is a better gender ratio 990 than the national average of 933. It has low urban population of 45 lakh, out of these 12 lakh live in slums area.
The state has high proportion of below the poverty line families; 37 lakh (43%) households as per BPL survey 2003. Out of these 57% households belong to SC/ST. The state is rich in natural resources. The Forest cover is of more than 42% of the total land. The role of forests in people’s lives and their livelihoods is the defining characteristic of Chhattisgarh State. At the same time, while having high SC/ST population and forest cover, there are gaps in implementation of Forest Rights Act. The most forested districts do not have even a single community rights claim.
However, the GDP growth was reported high (8.68%) in 2007-08. Share of secondary sector (Industry and Manufacturing) is of 14.7% and service sector is 7.78%, while primary sector has on lowest 6.26%. Though, 80% of the total work force is engaged in agriculture and allied activities. About half of the farmers in the state have marginal landholding, which is an average land size of 0.22 hectare. Low productivity of agriculture and disguised unemployment in the agricultural sector forces people to migrate in search of livelihood. Thus, every year approx 1600 farmers attempt suicides.
It is estimated that 31.4 % urban population of Chhattisgarh, comprising 1.4 million persons are poor. The proportion of urban population below the poverty line in the state is one of highest in India, next only to Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. The cities in Chhattisgarh are characterized by agglomeration of industries and cheap migrant labour, these labour who are coming from nearby villages have very limited bargaining power, therefore are severely exploited in the labour market.
The State’s literacy rate is 65.18% as per Census 2001, which is slightly better than the national literacy rate of 64.8 %. The female literacy has also considerably improved over the last decade. While a state has improved as whole, a great disparity persists in the literacy rates of males (77.4%) and females (51.9%). At the same time the literacy of SC (52.46%) and ST (42.72%) are quite lower than the state average. The female literacy in SC and ST is 48.48% and 32.32% respectively.
Despite of completion of 8 year of SSA, the dropout rate is still higher at class (1-XII) amongst the ST (88.59%) and SC (79.68%) as compare to state average i.e. 76 %. This reflects a clear exclusion of STs and SCs in the state. Despite of huge expenditure under SSA, ST children are not attaining quality education, therefore there is a high drop out from primary and upper primary level.
Increasing demand for secondary education is also unmet. The drop-outs rate of girls continues to be the highest among the scheduled tribes and in the tribal districts. The reason of this absenteeism is attributed to the poverty of the scheduled caste and tribe families where girls are seen as helping hand for the poverty stricken family.
As per the NHFS-3 Chhattisgarh has IMR at 75 per 1000 live birth (as compared to 58 of the National average) and Maternal Mortality rate is at 335 ( SRS 2005). Early pregnancy is one of the contributory factors for high MMR and IMR in the State. Though the age at marriage of girls and boys is increasing gradually, but reality is that as per NFHS-3, 60.3% women aged 20-24 were married by the age of 18 and 51.9% of men aged 25-29 were married by the age of 21. Malnutrition is very as 54% children are underweight. Similarly 82% children are anaemic or malnourished.